Media & Entertainment Industry Trends, Technology and Research

G – Media & Entertainment Technology Concepts

Posted By Nitin Narang On Friday, November 1st, 2013With No Comments »

Media and Entertainment Industry Concepts : Browse by Letter – G

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ConceptCategoryDescriptionAssociated Product, Forum, Company etc.
Gamma CorrectionImage TechnologyGamma correction (gamma encoding) refers to brightness enhancement of the image to make it appear more natural which may otherwise appear bleached out or too dark. Perception of brightness follows a power law function and humans being more sensitive to absolute intensity changes in dark areas, Gamma correction follows this human vision characteristics and compensates (nonlinear operation) to achieve to high visual quality.Gamma encoding
GEMInteractive TV StandardDVB-GEM is the open middleware specification of DVB and ITU-T recommended middleware standard for interactive television.  GEM is based on Java with a common core of APIs and offers a platform-independent  application execution environment to create interactive content for different devices, networks and markets.  GEM defines  functionalities which are independent from the signaling and protocols of transmission network and hence enables to write interoperable Java applications across mediums like broadcast (broadcast TV over cable, terrestrial or satellite) ,  IPTV, OTT  and Packaged media target (Blu-ray disc).MHP, MHEG, EBIF
Generation LossVideo TechnologyGeneration loss refers to loss of content quality on account of multiple copying and transcoding.  In digital systems generation loss is more pronounced with lossy formats due to introduction of artifacts by successive recording/copying/transcoding. In Analog systems  generation loss is attributed to noise and bandwidth issues from recording equipment e.g. mixers, cables, amplifiers and mixers.signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio),  aliasing
GenlockBroadcast OperationGenerator locking device (Genlock) is a device that enables synchronization of graphics output by locking to an externally generated signal.  Genlock is used when working with two or more signals (or graphics) simultaneously in video post-production and nonlinear content editing. A common example is  television camera and CG server feeding to a production switcher. Generally all studio equipment’s – video sources are locked to a common synchronizing pulse generator and hence genlocked.syntonized, Natlock
Gibbs EffectCompression ArtifactGibbs effect or Mosquito Noise is a MPEG compression artifact that blurs the outline of sharp objects. It arises due to difficulty in approximating a discontinuous function by a finite series of continuous sine and cosine waves from Fourier series.mosquito noise, ringing artifacts
GIFImage TechnologyGraphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a compressed image file format and is based on indexed colors, which is a palette of at most 256 colors commonly used for small icons and animated images.JPG, TIFF
GOPVideo TechnologyGroup of Pictures (GOP) represent groping’s of individual frame of pictures that make the video sequence.  MPEG achieves interframe compression by using three types of frames (I-Frame, B-Frame, P-Frame) organized in a structure called GOP.  GOP has a characteristics of Open GOP (contain references from previous GOP) and Closed GOP (no reference from  previous GOP). The GOP allows editing and splicing of video material/frames from different sources. E.g. 720 p uses a GOP structure of 6 frames, MPEG-2  uses 15.MPEG, Video Compression, I Frame, P Frame, B Frame
GOP PatternVideo TechnologyA GOP pattern is defined by the ratio of P (Predictive) to B (Bi-directional) frames within a GOP. Frame sequence like IBP, IBBP, IBBPBBPBBI etc. represent GOP patterns. A longer GOP length represent higher compression and efficient encode while  a smaller GOP pattern with shorter GOP length is suited to video having quick movements, less correlation and hence less overall compression.
Sequencing of frames is decided by the encoders which can force I-frames when detecting abrupt visual changes such as transitions  and fast camera movements.
GPIBroadcast OperationGeneral Purpose Interface, GPI is a method for communicating with electronic systems by utilizing relay or electronic contact closure inputs and outputs.GPO
GPOBroadcast OperationGeneral Purpose Output , GPO represent contact closure output of a General Purpose Interface.GPI
GPUGraphicsGraphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a specialized processor used primarily for computing graphics and math functions like  lighting effects, object transformations, and 3D motion. GPUs are increasingly deployed to handle computational intensive processing requirements and offload the processing burden on CPU, delivering faster graphics processing speeds.Graphics Accelerator, NVIDIA
GraticuleVideo TechnologyA group of lines inserted over a video signal to allow for measurement and alignment of the image. A film camera has graticule grounded into the glass of the optical viewfinder to allow the user to properly frame the image.viewfinder
GStreamer Streaming TechnologyGstreamer is an cross platform, open source multimedia framework which contains library for constructing graphs of media-handling components. It supports range of applications in media pipeline from playback, streaming to complex audio/video processing. GStreamer processes media by connecting a number of processing elements into a pipeline where each element is provided by a plug-inGobject
GUIDAnalytics and ReportingGlobally Unique Identifier(GUID) is a 128-bit (16 byte) number (hexadecimal notation) used by software programs to uniquely identify the location of a data object. Some examples include GUIDs used in streaming media files, Windows registry , database keys etc.Analytics